What is it?
MySQL replication allows you to ‘mirror’ databases on one or more servers(master) to one or more servers(slave). You can control what to replicate such as one or more databases, or even tables within a database i.e. selective replication.
How does it work?
Replication relies heavily on binary logs. If binary logging is enabled, all updates—data manipulation & data definition—to a database are written to binary log as a binary log event. A slave server can then read it’s master’s binary log to access data for replication. The slave writes master’s binary log events in a relay log file.
A slave server keeps track of it’s master’s binary log position that it last applied, therefore allowing it to re-connect and resume replication if it was temporarily stopped. Basically, masters & slaves don’t have to be in constant communication with each other.
Replication can come in handy in the following scenarios:
- Taking backups: backups can easily be taken if a server is not being actively used. Its always recommended to take backups on a slave server instead of a production(master) server that is actively under use.
- Scalability: For high-read/low-write environments, you can have one master server where all writes occur and replicated to multiple slaves which in turn handle the reads.
- Load reduction: Instead of running some sort of data analysis which might increase the load on a master server, this can be done on a slave server therefore reducing load on the master.
- Data distribution: replication can be used to create a local copy of data on a remote master.
How can I set it up?
Having 2 servers—
db01 as the master and
db02 as the slave—both running Ubuntu 14.04, we’ll setup replication on MariaDB—a fork of MySQL:
On both servers
add mariadb repo & install mariadb-server-10.0
# aptitude install software-properties-common # apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xcbcb082a1bb943db # echo 'deb http://ftp.wa.co.za/pub/mariadb/repo/10.0/ubuntu trusty main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mariadb.list # aptitude update # aptitude install mariadb-server-10.0
On db01—master server
set mysql to bind to a non-localhost IP address, otherwise remote slave connections will fail:
bind-address = 192.168.1.5
Give the master a unique
server_id. It can be a number from 1 to 232-1 & must be unique in the replication group;
server_id = 1 master_verify_checksum = 1
Enable binary logging, if not yet enabled.
log_bin = mysql-bin
General master’s mysql config file:
/etc/mysql/conf.d/master-replication.cnfRestart mysql service for the config changes to take effect
[mysqld] log_bin = mysql-bin server_id = 1 bind-address = 192.168.1.5 master_verify_checksum = 1
Create a slave user & grant it replication privilege; remember this user will connect to the master from the slave(
create user 'slave'@'192.168.1.6' identified by '6^%ys3a^A7&bpQWmR=*A'; grant replication slave on *.* to 'slave'@'192.168.1.6'; flush privileges;
get the binary log file name & position which the slave will use it as a starting point for the replication
MariaDB [(none)]> show master status; +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | File | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | mysql-bin.001054 | 55117 | | | +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
rsync mysql data dir from
db02, preferably when mysql service is stopped on both hosts to avoid inconsistencies. You can also use
mysqldumpif you don’t have large databases
# service mysql stop # rsync -aPvz --human-readable /var/lib/mysql [email protected]:/var/lib/
Give db02 a unique
server_idtoo. To avoid data inconsistencies between the master & slave, verify binlog checksums when reading events from the relay log by setting
slave_sql_verify_checksumto 1. Restart mysql for config changes to take effect:
[mysqld] server_id = 2 slave_sql_verify_checksum = 1
Once data from the master has been copied you can start replication by running CHANGE MASTER TO mysql command. Ensure that
MASTER_LOG_POSmatches the filename & position returned by
SHOW MASTER STATUSran earlier on the master:
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='db01', MASTER_USER='slave', MASTER_PASSWORD='6^%ys3a^A7&bpQWmR=*A', MASTER_PORT=3306, MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.001054', MASTER_LOG_POS=55117, MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY=60;
finally, start slave using START SLAVE mysql command:
You can view slave status by running SHOW SLAVE STATUS mysql command:
MariaDB [(none)]> show slave status\G *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event Master_Host: db01 Master_User: slave Master_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 60 Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.001054 Read_Master_Log_Pos: 55117 Relay_Log_File: mysqld-relay-bin.000274 Relay_Log_Pos: 55100 Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.001054 Slave_IO_Running: Yes Slave_SQL_Running: Yes Replicate_Do_DB: Replicate_Ignore_DB: Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: Last_Errno: 0 Last_Error: Skip_Counter: 0 Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 55117 Relay_Log_Space: 1239660 Until_Condition: None Until_Log_File: Until_Log_Pos: 0 Master_SSL_Allowed: No Master_SSL_CA_File: Master_SSL_CA_Path: Master_SSL_Cert: Master_SSL_Cipher: Master_SSL_Key: Seconds_Behind_Master: 0 Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No Last_IO_Errno: 0 Last_IO_Error: Last_SQL_Errno: 0 Last_SQL_Error: Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: Master_Server_Id: 1 Master_SSL_Crl: Master_SSL_Crlpath: Using_Gtid: No Gtid_IO_Pos: 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
- Don’t mix & match server names & IP addresses: I prefer adding hostnames & their respective IP addresses to
/etc/hostswhich gives me some sort of flexibility in changing IP address & it’s more readable. To be on the safe side, either use only hostnames or IP addresses.
- Replication is not a complete backup solution: Remember that all updates—data manipulation & definition—to a database are written as binlog events to a binary log, which is then replicated to a slave. Therefore, if you drop a database or truncate a table on master, the same will be done on the slave too! Replication, to some extent, can assist in protection against hardware failure on the master, but not against data loss—intentional or unintentional—on the master.
- MySQL Binary Log
- MySQL Relay Log
- MariaDB 10.0 Server
CHANGE MASTER TOCommand
SHOW SLAVE STATUSCommand